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August 2016

Volume 3 Issue 2

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Collective Review

Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Subjects Who Were Children at the time of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Some Lessons for The Management of Fukushima’s Aftermaths

Luc Michel*, Daniel Blackburn, Julian Donckier

Radiation exposure to the thyroid during childhood is the most clearly defined environmental risk factor associated with malignant thyroid tumours. The risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation is related to radiation dose and age (greater for children exposed early in life), and the risk persists throughout life. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common radiation-related histologic type.

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Collective Review

Radiation and Immunotherapy Extended Life in a Patient Who Failed Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy Trials: Implications of Radiation Abscopal Effect

Ryan Goetz (MD), Carsten Schroeder MD PhD, Shulian Wang MD PhD, Erika Simmerman DO, Jianyue Jin PhD, Bennett Greenspan MD MS, Jigar Parikh MD MBBS, Feng-Ming (Spring) Kong MD PhD*

Stage IV bladder cancer has been previously noted to have poor survival outcomes. The current standard of care is focused on systemic therapy with radiation only being utilized for the management of painful osseous metastases and controlling other symptoms. Our report introduces a patient with multiple, large mediastinal metastases who failed multiple rounds of systemic therapy, including immune therapy, who responded to radiation therapy twice, and had a complete response to immune therapy accompanying the second round of partial-volume low-dose radiation therapy. The patient, who was initially considered for hospice, is currently alive one year after the second course of radiation followed by immunotherapy and 2 years after the first course of palliative radiation.                                                                                                                               


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Research Article

A PsychoNeuroEndocrineImmune (PNEI) Approach to Enhance the Efficacy of Radiochemotherapy in Glioblastoma

Lissoni P*, Messina G, Porro G, Porta E, Nosetto L, Mancuso M, Di Fede G

GBM would represent perhaps the only tumor, whose prognosis had achieved no evident benefits in terms of survival from the main oncological therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic treatments. According to the recent advances in the Psychoneuroendocrinology, an improvement in GBM therapy could arise from the knowledge of the psychoneuroendocrine mechanisms responsible for GBM cancer cell growth, and, at present, it has been proven that GBM cells may express opioid receptors, whose activation stimulate cancer proliferation, whereas melatonin (MLT) and other pineal indole hormones, namely the 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTT), may suppress GBM growth.                                                                                                                                 


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Research Article

Radiotherapy-Induced Changes in Serum Lipid Profile of Patients with Prostate or Head and Neck Cancer

Malgorzata Ros-Mazurczyk, Karol Jelonek, Monika Pietrowska, Adam Zagdanski, Agnieszka Suchwalko, Tomasz Jastrzab, Joanna Polanska, Ewa Chawinska, Wojciech Majewski, Iwona Dominczyk, Tomasz Rutkowski, Leszek Miszczyk, Krzysztof Skladowski, Piotr Widlak*

Radiotherapy (RT), either alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, is an effective treatment of patients suffering from different types of cancer. Intensity modulated RT (IMRT) helps to deliver precisely a higher dose of radiation to the tumor, and to reduce potentially dose and toxicity of radiation to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a potential drawback of IMRT is an exposure of large volume of normal tissues to low/medium doses, which could affect whole body response to the treatment.                                                                                                                              


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Short Communication

Carbon ions Versus γ-Irradiation: The Telomeric Effect in Cancer Cells

Sylvain Ferrandon (PhD), Badia El Hamdani (MD)., Sophie Gazzo (MD), Priscilla Batiston-Montagne (Tech), Michael Beuve (Pr.), Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse (Pr.), Delphine Poncet (PharmD. PhD.)*

Carbon ions (C+) hadrontherapy is an alternative treatment  for radio-resistant tumors. Compared with photon irradiation (γ -IR), C+ has demonstrated a higher Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) in vitro and in vivo. Clustered DNA lesions called Locally Multiply Damaged Sites (LMDS) are more difficult to repair and are therefore responsible for the higher RBE of C+ irradiation. In contrast, isolated double strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be the primary determinant of cell death after γ -IR with a minor implication for LMDS. However, the genomic region damaged by these types of irradiation can also influence the RBE. Telomeres, the heterochromatin structure located at the end of chromosomes, play different roles in response to C+ and γ-IR.                                                                                                                          


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Short Communication

Radiotherapy and Rosai-Dorfman Disease

Antonio Cássio Assis Pellizzon*, MD, Ph.D., Ricardo Cesar Fogaroli, MD, Maria Leticia Gobo Silva, MD, Michael Jenwei Chen, MD, Guilherme Gondim, MD, Douglas de Castro Guedes, MD, Henderson Ramos, MD

Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) also known as histiocytosis with lymphadenopathy is uncommon, often self-limiting benign, not–Langerhans-cell histiocytic proliferative disorder. It usually affects young adults and children, with no predilection for sex. More than 80% of patients present with painless cervical lymphadenopathy, with or without fever. Other presentation sites include upper aero-digestive tract, orbits, and the paranasal sinuses. Extra nodal involvement can occur from 20% to more than 40% of cases, and common sites of involvement include the skin, upper airway, soft tissue, bones kidney, lower respiratory tract, liver, orbit and central nervous system.                                                                                                                              


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